Chlorine Dioxide

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, when it was first used at a spa in Ostend, Belgium, chlorine dioxide has been known as a powerful disinfectant of water. During the 1950s, it was introduced more generally as a drinking water disinfectant since it provided less organoleptic hindering than chlorine. Approximately 700 to 900 public water systems use chlorine dioxide to treat potable water (Hoehn, 1992). Today, the major uses of chlorine dioxide are:
 
  • CT disinfection credit;
  • Preoxidant to control tastes and odor;
  • Control of iron and manganese; and
  • Control of hydrogen sulfide and phenolic compounds.

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Topics covered in our information on Chlorine Dioxide include:
 

CHLORINE DIOXIDE CHEMISTRY

  • Oxidation  Potential

GENERATION

  • Introduction
  • Chlorine Dioxide Purity
  • Methods of Generating Chlorine Dioxide
  • Generator Design
  • Chemical Feed Systems
  • Generator Power Requirements

PRIMARY USES AND POINTS OF APPLICATION FOR CHLORINE DIOXIDE

  • Disinfection
  • Taste and Odor Control
  • Oxidation of Iron and Manganese

PATHOGEN INACTIVATION AND DISINFECTION EFFICACY

  • Inactivation Mechanisms
  • Environmental Effects
  • Disinfection Efficacy

CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

  • Production of Chlorite and Chlorate
  • Organic DBPs Produced by Chlorine Dioxide
  • Chlorine Dioxide DBP Control Strategies
  • STATUS OF ANALYTICAL METHODS
  • Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite Analytical Methods
  • Chlorine Dioxide Monitoring for Systems Using Chlorine Dioxide
  • Chlorite Monitoring for Systems Using Chlorine Dioxide

OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

  • Process Considerations
  • Generator Operation
  • Feed Chemicals

SUMMARY

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Chlorine Dioxide Use
  • Summary Table

REFERENCES

  • Table 4-1. Commercial Chlorine Dioxide Generators
  • Table 4-2. Surface Water Chlorine Dioxide Demand Study Results
  • Table 4-3. Analytical Methods for Chlorine Dioxide and Related Compounds
  • Table 4-4. Properties of Sodium Chlorite as Commercially Available
  • Table 4-5. Summary for Chlorine Dioxide
  • Figure 4-1. Conventional Chlorine Dioxide Generator When Using Chlorine-Chlorite Method
  • Figure 4-2. Chlorine Dioxide Generation Using Recycled Aqueous Chlorine Method
  • Figure 4-3. Effect of Temperature on N. Gruberi Cyst Inactivation at pH 7
  • Figure 4-4. Comparison of Germicidal Efficiency of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorine
  • Figure 4-5. CT Values for Inactivation of Giardia Cysts by Chlorine Dioxide
  • Figure 4-6. CT Values for Inactivation of Viruses by Chlorine Dioxide
  • Figure 4-7. C. parvum Inactivation by Chlorine Dioxide at 20°C
  • Figure 4-8. C. parvum Inactivation by Chlorine Dioxide at 10°C
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